City of Sound is about cities, design, architecture, music, media, politics and more. Written by Dan Hill since 2001.

The recent redesign of the BBC Radio 3 site featured a joint project between the BBC’s Radio & Music Interactive department (where I work, running the Technology & Design team) and Central New Media division to deliver unique, persistent pages per programme. Tom Coates, of my aforementioned team, has written an excellent summary of both the practical aspects of the project and the significance of the work from a user experience point-of-view. Go read Tom’s summary because a) it’s very good, and b) will appropriately detail the fine people who worked on the site. I thought I’d step back a bit and talk about the genesis of the project, and the thought process behind the project from my point-of-view, as a new media professional working in radio and music for the BBC.

Building on some related work around automated search results for programme information and some informal r&d that Tom Coates and Matt Webb led around time-based navigation models, I wondered if we could jam these ideas together to deliver something I’d been wanting to address for a while: in short-hand, making a radio site blog-friendly. Or rather, beginning to create a site which presented information spaces of the appropriate shape, size, and formal quality to enable them to be informational building blocks for others.

We could devise a solution for building a database of every single programme Radio 3 broadcast out of the radio production feeds and systems we have to hand. We could further create a page for this, hooked around a persistent URI. We had our first chance to deliver this with Radio 3’s then-imminent redesign.

On the one hand, this was about simply representing the breadth, depth, and richness of Radio 3’s output, from one-off documentaries and specialist output to daily shows. In essence, properly representing everything we broadcast. But beyond that, this is also about beginning to model something I’d described as ‘the social life of a broadcast’, building on an idea I’d had for enabling and tracking the ripples of conversation and meaning around broadcasts.

Ripples around radio
When the BBC started producing websites supporting broadcast media, the approach (before my time/reasonably enough at the time) was to essentially ‘cherry-pick’ key shows and hand-build bespoke properties around those shows. So previously, and in broad brushstrokes, Radio 3 had selected shows to represent thoroughly online – over and above the BBC’s transient What’s On listings feed, that is – adding further editorial where possible. This had been pretty successful.

And yet, looking from a different angle, we can surmise that all radio broadcasts have some impact or stimulate some discussion in ‘real life’. For example, and in a tip-of-the-iceberg kinda way:

  • people share reactions during broadcast if near the same radio, or after broadcast – chatting in a café; on the phone; in the hairdressers; in personal letters and emails;
  • there are ‘water cooler’ moments (‘events’ like the Last Night of the Proms, of course, but then also ‘specialist water coolers’ will react to specialist shows),
  • there are press reviews a week later,
  • letters and phone calls to either the BBC, or to newspapers/magazines in reaction to those reviews

Ripples, before

So we see the broadcast causing a series of ‘ripples’ through social space over time.

We’ve now witnessed the rapid expansion and growth of a new and fertile social space online, built around personal publishing systems (like blogs, Livejournals, or community discussion spaces like messageboards). Similarly, transient conversational spaces conjured by instant messaging. Similarly, smart social software tools built around personal workflow and self-expression, like Flickr, Audioscrobbler, Mixmatcher etc.

And consequently, as well as numerous Google queries for radio shows, we have the chance to provide some hooks and frames for many of conversations enabled above.

The hand-built approach was not scalable to the demands of covering 10 national radio networks (for example, Radio 4 alone broadcasts over 10000 different shows per year) and certainly couldn’t thoroughly cover Radio 3’s output. So those Google queries often had nowhere to go on our sites (see below) – we were not serving this increasing demand. Moreover, we hadn’t been providing basic foundations upon which people could actually build conversation, critique and reflection in this new space. In order to stimulate this space we need to give people something to build on; to hook on to.

Our colleagues over in BBC News built one of the building blocks of blog world. The granularity and permanence of those content blocks enables people to build around it, link to it, discuss. Just check Technorati for an idea of how a significant chunk of the blogosphere builds around BBC News. We just couldn’t do that with our radio content, and yet BBC radio was generating ‘discussable’ content at the same rate as BBC News. So those ‘real world’ conversations about radio couldn’t be mirrored online.

I’d personally witnessed here how difficult it is to build blog entries around R&M content. Google for the Radio 3 ‘Sunday Feature’ documentary on the brilliant Brazilian music ‘tropicalia’ e.g.

Or google for a Radio 4 documentary called ‘Devil’s Architect’, about Nicholas Hawksmoor e.g.

When I wrote the initial project proposal around this, cityofsound, with entries around these two BBC radio programmes, came out top on both occasions (currently third, and it’s interesting to see now how both the new Radio 3 site is already more relevant (not specifically around that specific programme, but not bad) and how the rest of the net has been tracking those programmes). A year on, the Hawksmoor documentary is now referred to from a few places it wasn’t previously.

However, it’s still the case that there is no meaningful sign that either show ever really existed on the BBC site. Nor did I have anywhere to link to when writing my blog entries in the first place.

Observing referrers coming into my site, we can see a demand for more information about such shows. Look at these screenshots of my blog’s referrer logs, with search engine queries for the above shows [click these thumbnails for detail]:

referrer_radio3tropicalia Query for ‘Tropicalia’;
referrer_radio4devilsarchit Query for ‘Hawksmoor’;

[check the bottom of the browser window to see the search string]

Others have made similar observations.

Why make more ripples around radio?
I’ve selected some choice examples above, but they’re fairly representative of the type of shows which were falling between the cracks of an approach which focuses on hand-building and cherry-picking. They’re typical of specialist BBC content – often content which helps make the BBC especially distinctive and arguably one of the real strengths of the BBC – in producing shows in the niches; in the spaces left untouched by many other broadcasters.

These shows often have deep resonance for their audience, but their existence can still disappear without trace even in the ‘real world’, except in the intimate conversations noted above. This has been noted in the context of radio drama on Radio 3. This from Adam Thorpe in The Guardian last year:

"(Production of radio drama) goes on day after day, week after week, in a range of styles that leaves television’s one-track realism far behind. And yet, radio is a Cinderella medium. Just one Radio Times cover a year is devoted to this last Reithian bastion. Meanwhile, the superior intelligence and imagination of Radio 3 and 4’s drama output (let alone its features) is so taken for granted that it goes virtually unnoticed."

"The odds seem to be stacked against radio drama being regarded as an art form. For the cultural powers-that-be, it can never be much more than a platinum version of The Archers. And here’s the rub: no newspaper or journal (with the exception, occasionally, of the Times Literary Supplement) ever reviews the latest radio play separately from, say, Gardener’s Question Time. Two of our greatest living dramatists, Edward Bond and John Arden, have followed the example of Samuel Beckett and given up mainstream theatre for the radio; Bond’s latest play, broadcast in May and focusing on the world of arms manufacturers, went virtually ignored."

"Even when reviews do appear, they treat radio plays as blacked-out stage plays. There is none of the distinctive critical language found in music or dance criticism – yet radio drama is as stylised as either. Technical notions of the type usually associated with film – crossfades and cuts, acoustics, music, sound effects – are entirely ignored."

"(H)ow many of these (radio plays) made the slightest ripple? They were appreciated in private all over the country, no doubt; perhaps this makes radio drama more truly an expression of the people’s soul than any other medium. It is certainly one of the few art forms uninfected by commercial pressures or the cretinous reign of the celebrity. Nobody gets rich making radio plays." [my emphasis] The Guardian: The Best Plays You’ve Never Seen

So I wondered whether we could help make those ripples visible; about building on those private reactions to radio content; about the internet sharing radio’s ability to express people’s soul. In one of those beautiful and accidental moments of serendipity, I discovered this article just as I was thinking through metaphors for broadcast media and the social spaces of the web. The fact it referred to ripples was just too strong a coincidence to ignore.

Some implementation details then: first and foremost, we needed a way of denoting a unique reference for a Radio 3 programme which is as permanent as can be. The URL structure derived from that is pretty important. Then we need to devise ways of automating the production of programme pages, built around content object models based on our incredibly complex output; and then devise new ways of navigating towards this content, taking on board the bewildering range of programme formats the BBC broadcasts). This has been built for the Long Now – though they may not have used that phrase! Tom has much more on the detail here – cos he and the team did it.

If such a system were in place, and if it were desirable to pursue some of the opportunities this would afford, we could pursue an even richer relationship between broadcast media in the form of Radio 3 and new media.

  • We could model upcoming programmes, gathering user-generated material for the show/production teams before broadcast, where applicable/desirable (potentially, a We-Media-like tactic);
  • more effectively communicating the existence of upcoming programmes;
  • switch mode during broadcast to represent when a programme is currently playing;
  • then provided an excellent place to situate the opportunity to listen to the programme again, while we can, via our radio-on-demand Radio Player;
  • also potentially garnering user/listeners comments and reaction, whilst accreting further knowledge and feedback around the subject area after broadcast (from "I loved Gidon Kremer’s reading of Shostakovitch here" to "You pronounced Shostakovitch wrong");
  • in turn stimulating wider discussions about BBC radio broadcasts both across and in the highly discursive, highly socialised environment which has emerged on the internet.

Ripples, after

This is idle speculation/grand strategy at this point – as are many other development ideas which could really increase user agency around our programme information. More to follow, hopefully. But we now have a new foundation in place at Radio 3.

The opportunities for interaction around broadcasting could be quite profound, and yet whether some presenters or shows will want or need to respond to these ‘ripples’ in this way is open to question. Whether it’s truly desirable for many shows is something we’ll have to investigate, probably on a case by case basis. However, the potential is there now, and it begins to solve some problems we were already having around the basic issue of linkability. It also begins to blur the edges between the Radio 3 site and the sites and spaces that Radio 3 listeners also inhabit, weaving new patterns into the fabric of the web.

Essentially, I now know that as well as chatting in the office about how Radio 3’s superb Late Junction played the Billy Cobham track that Massive Attack sampled, I can now link to that particular programme … and just as the memory of those discussions won’t erode, I know that link won’t rot.


5 responses to “Sketchbook: Ripples, or “The Social Life of a Broadcast””

  1. Andrew Avatar

    Dan, this is a fabulous post. It’s really rare to see an information architecture that succeeds on both a human and busniness level.
    Actually it’s not the “ripples” metaphor, but the “building blocks” reference that I noticed. It’s worth stating outright what maybe is obvious to you but not to philistines like me here in the US©: that this kind of design directly serves the mission of the BBC, specifically articulated as “a store of value which spans media and platforms, develops and grows over time, which the public own and can freely use in perpetuity.” It would be easy to meet the letter of that law and fail totally to meet its spirit, say by just dumping a lot of content into some massive database and call it a day. Great to see that you folks are doing more.


  2. Scott's place Avatar

    Radio ripples: the life cycle of a broadcast

    Dave Hill has written an informative piece about some of the architecture decisions behind the new BBC Radio 3 website, which enables deep linking to pages that specifically relate not just to a particular series of show or presenter, but…


  3. Tom Avatar

    A very interesting post. I work in Broadcast and Infrastructure at BBC Technology, and it’s great to see such innovative thinking coming out of the BBC and its various parts.
    Radio is really leading the way in content distribution online, so keep up the good work!


  4. Dan Avatar

    Interestingly, since we launched this new system on the Radio 3 site, the ‘tropicalia’ query above now (currently) returns a good result (since Radio 3 broadcast a show containing some tropicalia last September). So my example no longer works, but the project has 🙂


  5. Dan Avatar

    Trackbacks sent to this post at the time (before I turned trackbacks off due to spam):

    » Radio ripples: the life cycle of a broadcast from Scott’s place
    Dan Hill has written an informative piece about some of the architecture decisions behind the new BBC Radio 3 website, which enables deep linking to pages that specifically relate not just to a particular series of show or presenter, but… [Read More]


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